Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All
A small amount of bone loss after age 35 years is normal for both men and women. But during the first 48 years after menopause, women lose bone more rapidly. This rapid loss occurs because of the decreased levels of estrogen. If too much bone is lost, it can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fracture. The bones of the hip, wrist, and spine are affected most often.
The estrogen produced by womens ovaries before menopause protects against heart attacks and stroke. When less estrogen is made after menopause, women lose much of this protection. Midlife also is the time when risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and being physically inactive, are more common. All of these combined factors increase the risk of heart attack and stroke in menopausal women.
Systemic estrogen therapy has been shown to be the best treatment for the relief of hot flashes and night sweats. Both systemic and local types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of colon cancer.
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Can We Prevent Getting Weight
Yes, provided you take the bull by the horns! Preferably, from the age of 40, the woman that wishes to protect against the typical weight gain of menopause has all interest to oblige herself to good health of life.This indicates working out as well as carefully monitoring her diet. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False?
Menopause: Discussing It To Live It Much Better
Your medical professional is not psychic! If you dont talk to him about it, he can not guess that you are having psychological, sexual, psychological, and so on, troubles. Nevertheless, for all these problems, there are specific solutions. If she or he deems it proper, your doctor can refer you to various other experts who can help you to far better endure this delicate duration. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False
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The Ovarian Cycle And The Menstrual Cycle
The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 2232 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days.
The first half of the ovarian cycle is the follicular phase shown in Figure 2. Slowly rising levels of FSH and LH cause the growth of follicles on the surface of the ovary. This process prepares the egg for ovulation. As the follicles grow, they begin releasing estrogens and a low level of progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium to help ensure pregnancy. The trip through the fallopian tube takes about seven days. At this stage of development, called the morula, there are 30-60 cells. If pregnancy implantation does not occur, the lining is sloughed off. After about five days, estrogen levels rise and the menstrual cycle enters the proliferative phase. The endometrium begins to regrow, replacing the blood vessels and glands that deteriorated during the end of the last cycle.
Figure 2. Click for a larger image. The ovarian and menstrual cycles of female reproduction are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries.
Can We Prevent Acquiring Weight
Yes, supplied you take the bull by the horns! Ideally, from the age of 40, the lady that intends to stop the common weight gain of menopause has all passion to oblige herself to great hygiene of life.This suggests working out and also closely checking her diet regimen. Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
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Social Construction Of Menopause: A Western Historical Context
Throughout history, menopause has had negative connotations. Hippocrates described a climacteric syndrome, which was attributed to a weak uterus causing women to lose power . In 1701, a physician argued that women 45 to 50 years of age develop a condition known as “hysterick fits” . As the label implies, the underlying premise was that menopause affects women on a psychologic level. Others believed that menstruation was a biologic way for the female body to eliminate poisonous chemicals, and lack of menstruation resulted in toxic accumulation . In Puritan New England, women were believed to be the weaker spiritual vessel, and the concept of menopause affecting women and not men was consistent with this overall concept that women were viewed as the weaker sex. Furthermore, it has been noted that the majority of women who were accused of witchcraft during this time were at the approximate age of menopause beginning .
|An opportunity to experience new things as they enter a new chapter of life|
Cultural Differences In Symptoms And Attitudes Toward Menopause
Nancy E. Avis, PhD Sybil Crawford, PhD
Menopause is a universal event in the biologic aging process of the human female. Every woman who lives long enough will eventually cease menstruating and end the reproductive phase of her life. However, cross-cultural studies find that womens menopausal experiences are far from universal; in fact, evidence shows that menopause is strongly shaped by social and cultural factors. The symptoms women experience, the meaning of menopause, their attitudes toward menopause, and whether or not they seek treatment all vary across cultures. Cross-cultural understanding of menopause comes from comparative population-based studies and anthropologic research from many countries and cultures.
Vasomotor Symptoms across Cultures TheWestern assumption that vasomotor symptoms are universally the most common symptoms associated with menopause is further challenged by data from crosscultural studies. Studies carried out in a wide range of countriessuch as Japan,2 rural Greece and Mexico, 9,11Newfoundland,12 Pakistan,13
The multiethnic/racial Study of WomensHealth Across theNation is studying the menopausal experience of five racial/ ethnic groups within the United States. SWAN investigators found that the prevalence of combined hot flashes and night sweats was lowest among women of Japanese and Chinese ethnicity , and higher among Hispanic and African-American women ;
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Alternative And Complementary Menopause Treatments
Some studies have found that soy products relieve hot flashes, but researchers are still looking into it. There arenât many large studies on whether other supplements such as black cohosh or âbioidenticalâ hormones work for menopause symptoms. Talk to your doctor before starting any herbal or dietary supplements.
Yoga, tai chi, and acupuncture are safer ways to manage menopause symptoms.
Theoretical Perspectives On Menopause
In Rostosky and Travis’s study, they argue that much of the medical literature written between 1984 and 1994 had serious methodologic flaws, including poor baseline data, failure to take into account diversity, lack of control groups, and overgeneralizations despite small sample sizes and nondiverse study samples . Furthermore, the articles were not written in an objective manner; pejorative language was often used to describe women’s bodies. Examples included “atrophic genital changes,” “ovarian dysfunction,” “total ovarian failure,” and “problem women.” It is within this medical backdrop that women ultimately seek information and assistance, which can lead to distorted constructions of menopause. The biomedical model is the most common model used to explain menopause in the United States and serves as the guidepost or truth for many women .
|It takes into account the context of race, ethnicity, culture, gender, class, and other social factors.|
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What To Do Versus Hot Flashes
In more than 85% of cases, hormone substitute therapy can get rid of the worst warm flashes within a few weeks. As for non-hormonal therapies, such as natural medicine , can sometimes ease them, yet less successfully and also with less uniformity than HRT. Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
Which Factors Can Affect The Timing Of Menopause
Any time the ovaries are surgically removed in an ovulating woman, menopause will result immediately. Further, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer can result in menopause if given to an ovulating woman. Whether or not this occurs depends upon the type and location of the cancer and the specific treatments given.
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Hot Flashes: The Menopause Standard
Hot flashes are to menopause what early morning sickness is to maternity: the most effective understood and often the initial signs and symptom of significant hormonal turmoil. Hot flashes are absolutely nothing greater than a sensation of intense heat influencing the face, neck, and chest. It lasts from 30 secs to 2 minutes and frequently finishes in cold sweats. Three-quarters of females begin to suffer from it as early as pre-menopause.Some, the luckiest, have only 1 or 2 hot flashes each day or evening, while others have up to 20 warm flashes per day! And it lasts: fifty percent of the women experience it for more than 5 years and 1 out of 4 for more than ten years. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False?
Complementary And Alternative Medicine
Some women take medicinal herbs and other supplements to relieve hot flashes, irritability, mood changes, and memory loss. However, black cohosh, other medicinal herbs , and over-the-counter drugs do not appear to be more effective than placebo, which works about 50% of the time. Also, such remedies are not regulated as drugs are. That is, their manufacturers are not required to show that they are safe or effective, and what their ingredients are and how much of each ingredient a product contains are not standardized .
Studies of soy protein have had mixed results. One soy product, called S-equol, may help relieve hot flashes in some women.
Some supplements can be harmful. Furthermore, some supplements can interact with other drugs and can worsen some disorders.
Concerns about using standard hormone therapy have led to an interest in using hormones derived from plants such as yams and soy. These hormones have nearly the same molecular structure as hormones made by the body and thus are called bioidentical hormones. Many of the hormones used in standard hormone therapy are also so-called bioidentical hormones derived from plants. However, the hormones used in standard hormone therapy have been tested and approved, and their use is closely monitored.
Women who are considering taking these compounded hormone therapies are advised to discuss them with a doctor.
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Summary Of Key Terminologies
cBHRT: Compounded Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: Precise duplicates of human hormones which are produced by specialist pharmacies and do not follow the same MHRA regulatory pathway as conventional rBHRT
rBHRT: Regulated Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: Precise duplicates of human hormones developed in a conventional way by the pharmaceutical industry and authorised by the regulators such as the MHRA in the UK
Are There Any Scientifically Proven Advantages For Rbhrt Over Conventional Hrt
Progestogens may not be alike with regard to potential adverse metabolic effects or associated breast cancer risk when combined with long-term estrogen therapy. Micronised progesterone and some progestogens have specific beneficial effects that could justify their use besides their expected actions on the endometrium. Synthetic analogues of progesterone bind to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgen receptors. This can lead to unwanted side effects such as fluid retention, acne and weight gain. Progestogens and progesterone can lower mood through stimulation of the neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid; whilst progesterone has sedative effects through its intermediate metabolites, progestogens can cause PMS-type side effects including anxiety and irritability.
It is well recognised that unlike oral estrogen, transdermal estrogen does not appear to increase the risk of VTE. Observational and case control data suggest that the use of certain progestogens e.g. dydrogesterone and micronised progesterone may reduce the increased risk of VTE conferred by oral estrogen, compared to that noted with other synthetic progestogens.
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What Conditions Cause Premature Menopause
Your genes,Â some immune system disorders, or medical procedures can cause premature menopause. Other causes include:
- Premature ovarian failure.Â When your ovaries prematurely stop releasing eggs, for unknown reasons, your levels of estrogen and progesterone change. When this happens before youâre 40, it’s called premature ovarian failure. Unlike premature menopause, premature ovarian failure isnât always permanent.
- Induced menopause.Â This happens when your doctor takes out your ovaries for medical reasons, such asÂ uterine cancerÂ orÂ endometriosis. It can also happen whenÂ radiationÂ orÂ chemotherapyÂ damages your ovaries.
Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False
Estrogen shortage, details to menopause, has an essentially significant impact on ladiess quality of life and also wellness condition a review of this substantial hormonal changes main consequences as well as exactly how you can deal with it. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False?
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What Happens During Menopause
Natural menopause isnât caused by any type of medical or surgical treatment. Itâs slow and has three stages:
- Perimenopause. This phase usually begins several years before menopause, when your ovaries slowly make lessÂ estrogen.Â PerimenopauseÂ lasts until menopause, the point at which your ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last 1 to 2 years of this stage, estrogen levels fall faster. Many women haveÂ menopause symptoms.
- Menopause.Â This is when it’s been a year since you had a period. Your ovaries have stopped releasing eggs and making most of their estrogen.
- Postmenopause.Â These are the years after menopause. Menopausal symptoms such asÂ hot flashesÂ usually ease. But health risks related to the loss of estrogen increase as you get older.
Understanding The Menopausal Transition
Menopause is a point in time 12 months after a woman’s last period. The years leading up to that point, when women may have changes in their monthly cycles, hot flashes, or other symptoms, are called the menopausal transition, or perimenopause.
The menopausal transition most often begins between ages 45 and 55. It usually lasts about 7 years but can last as long as 14 years. During the menopausal transition, the body’s production of estrogen and progesterone, two hormones made by the ovaries, varies greatly. Bones become less dense, making women more vulnerable to fractures. During this period, too, the body begins to use energy differently, fat cells change, and women may gain weight more easily.
Menopause may be triggered by a hysterectomy or surgical removal of the ovaries, which produce hormones. If you have surgery to remove your ovaries or uterus and are not taking hormones, you will experience the symptoms of menopause immediately.
This time in a woman’s life is often full of other transitionsnot just physical ones. Women may be caring for aging parents or relatives, supporting their children as they move into adulthood, or taking on new responsibilities at work.
An Even More Difficult Sexuality
Without therapy, estrogen deficiency eventually results in the genital mucosas dryness, which can then atrophy. The female experiences a feeling of genital dryness, triggering pain throughout sexual intercourse, specifically throughout infiltration. Due to the fact that the correct equilibrium of the vaginal plants is disturbed, she is likewise extra prone to tiny infections and also cystitis. Does all this probably describe why 58% of menopausal females say they no more seem like having sex? Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
Can Postmenopausal Weakening Of Bones Be Postponed
Osteoporosis can not be cured. Nonetheless, certain procedures can delay its onset and also minimize the risk of crack. Thanks to the estrogens it includes, hormonal agent replacement therapy plays an essential duty in protecting against the condition. Even if osteoporosis depends much on genetic heritage, age, and also sex , a healthy way of living is essential. From early adulthood, it is advised that ladies consumeenough calcium, enough vitamin D, and regular physical activity.Dont be reluctant to have a check-up with your medical professional, who might prescribe bone densitometry, a medical checkup that gauges bone thickness. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False?
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What To Do Against Hot Flashes
In greater than 85% of cases, hormone replacement treatment can eliminate the worst hot flashes within a few weeks. When it comes to non-hormonal treatments, such as organic medicine , can often relieve them, however less effectively and also with less consistency than HRT. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False
Can Postmenopausal Weakening Of Bones Be Delayed
Osteoporosis can not be cured. However, certain steps can delay its onset as well as lower the risk of fracture. Thanks to the estrogens it includes, hormonal agent substitute treatment plays a crucial role in protecting against the condition. Even if weakening of bones depends much on hereditary heritage, age, as well as sex , a healthy way of living is fundamental. From very early their adult years, it is recommended that women consumesufficient calcium, sufficient vitamin D, and regular exercise.Dont be reluctant to have an exam with your doctor, that might prescribe bone densitometry, a medical checkup that gauges bone thickness. Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
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Describe The Roles Of Male And Female Reproductive Hormones
The human male and female reproductive cycles are controlled by the interaction of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary with hormones from reproductive tissues and organs. In both sexes, the hypothalamus monitors and causes the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. When the reproductive hormone is required, the hypothalamus sends a gonadotropin-releasing hormone to the anterior pituitary. This causes the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary into the blood. Note that the body must reach puberty in order for the adrenals to release the hormones that must be present for GnRH to be produced. Although FSH and LH are named after their functions in female reproduction, they are produced in both sexes and play important roles in controlling reproduction. Other hormones have specific functions in the male and female reproductive systems.
Role Of Culture And Gender In Health Behaviors
When exploring women’s health experiences, gender is yet another central variable that must be taken into account. First, it is important to differentiate between sex and gender. Sex is the biologic classification based on reproductive organs and chromosomes , while gender is a social construct influenced by societal, institutional, historical, and cultural norms . Gender affects patterns of societal, community, familial, and individual expectations; processes of daily life; intrapsychic processes; and social interactions . Gender is also defined by existing institutions and ideologies and is imbued with views about power differentials. Therefore, when attempting to understand the experience of menopause, some scholars emphasize the impact of meanings attached to reproduction, fertility, sexuality, aging, and social and gender roles. These dimensions are contingent upon the attitudes and belief systems perpetuated and reinforced by social and cultural structures and institutions . It is also important for healthcare and mental health professionals to examine their own biases about women within the context of health, reproduction, and psychologic well-being. In general, helping professionals have a proclivity to focus on the negative aspects of women’s lives, referred to as the “women-as-problem bias” .
|Menopause was referred to as “hysterick fits,” implying it was a psychologic condition.|
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Can We Avoid Gaining Weight
Yes, offered you take the bull by the horns! Ideally, from the age of 40, the woman who wants to stop the typical weight gain of menopause has all interest to require herself to excellent health of life.This suggests exercising and closely monitoring her diet. Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False
The Body Still Produces Hormones
The body does not stop producing estrogen after menopause. Estrogen plays a role in various essential functions, and the body still needs some estrogen, although in smaller amounts.
However, estrogen will no longer come from the ovaries. Instead, the adrenal glands produce hormones called androgens, and aromatase, which is another hormone, converts them into estrogen.
Why does the body need estrogen? Find out here.
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Warm Flashes: The Menopause Standard
Hot flashes are to menopause what morning health issues is to maternity: the most effective recognized as well as commonly the initial sign of significant hormone upheaval. Warm flashes are nothing more than a feeling of intense heat affecting the face, neck, and also upper body. It lasts from 30 secs to 2 minutes and also usually finishes in fears. Three-quarters of women begin to struggle with it as early as pre-menopause.Some, the luckiest, have just 1 or 2 warm flashes per day or night, while others have up to 20 hot flashes daily! And also it lasts: fifty percent of the women deal with it for more than five years and also 1 out of 4 for greater than 10 years. Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
Most People Experience Symptoms
Menopause is not an illness, but the hormonal changes that occur can trigger symptoms.
These can range from mild to severe, leading, in some cases, to discomfort and distress. Treatment can help manage symptoms.
Common symptoms include:
Hot flashes: Sudden sensations of heat in the upper body affect up to 75% of people.
Night sweats: These are hot flashes that occur at night.
Difficulty sleeping: Night sweats, mood changes, and anxiety can make it hard to sleep.
Vaginal dryness: Sex can be painful as a result.
Reduced libido: Sexual desire can fall as hormone levels drop, but vaginal dryness can also make sex uncomfortable.
Mood changes: Fluctuating hormone levels and environmental factors can contribute to stress, anxiety, and depression.
Hormonal changes can also contribute to osteoporosis. When a person has osteoporosis, their bone density decreases, and bones are more likely to break. The risk of osteoporosis rises during and after menopause.
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Menopause Increases A Woman’s Risk For Depression
Changing hormone levels during menopause and midlife can increase the risk for depression in women. Emotional symptoms related to menopause can include anxiety, fears, and mood swings. Depression during perimenopause and menopause is treated similarly to depression that occurs at other times in life.
Can We Reduce Our Cardiovascular Danger
Yes, by preserving a healthy and balanced way of life, fighting against smoking as well as obese, exercising routine physical exercise, and closely checking high blood pressure, the look of possible diabetes mellitus, as well as cholesterol levels.Lets not neglect that heart diseases are the leading cause of death amongst females.
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A More Challenging Sexuality
Without therapy, estrogen shortage eventually results in the genital mucosas dryness, which can after that atrophy. The female experiences a feeling of vaginal dryness, creating pain throughout intercourse, specifically throughout infiltration. Because the correct equilibrium of the genital vegetation is disrupted, she is likewise extra at risk to little infections and cystitis. Does all this most likely describe why 58% of menopausal women state they no more seem like having sex? Which Of The Following Statements About Menopause Is False
Overcoming Presumptions Concerning Menopause
The method of this significant inner turmoil is often fretting. Here is some info to establish the record right.
The earlier you have your duration, the earlier you undergo menopauseIncorrect. There is no web link between the age of first menstrual cycle and the age at which it quits. Neither is there a web link in between the age of menopause as well as the age of taking the contraceptive pill . Menopause takes place when the supply of eggs, built up before birth, is virtually exhausted. Yet out of the initial stock of a number of million follicles, just 500 are released throughout ovulation throughout life. The remainder, 99.9% of the ovarian reserve, passes away normally by apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
The ordinary age of menopause does not transform regardless of the aging of the populace.Real. The average age of menopause is 51, an age that does not vary. When menopause takes place prior to the age of 40, it is called early ovarian failure. It is then essential to try to find a possible hereditary reason linked to an X chromosome irregularity. It is essential to compensate for the hormonal agent deficit in estrogens by taking hormonal agent substitute treatment till the ordinary age of menopause. Or else, the danger of death from heart disease is much more considerable. Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Problems With Menopause Is False?
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