Problems With The Master Gland
The pituitary gland is a small structure located at the base of the brain. It is known as the “master gland” because it produces several hormones that affect many bodily processes and other endocrine glands. Hormones produced by the pituitary gland include prolactin, growth hormone , thyroid-stimulating hormone , luteinizing hormone , adenocorticotropin , and follicle-stimulating hormone . The pituitary gland also releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. A pituitary gland tumor is the most common kind of pituitary disorder. They are usually benign . Sometimes these tumors secrete more or less of hormones made by the pituitary gland. Other tumors don’t secrete anything. Some pituitary tumors produce symptoms because they grow large enough to affect the functioning of the pituitary gland or surrounding brain structures.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- Do my symptoms indicate that I might be going through menopause?
- My menstrual cycle is irregular. Could it be caused by something other than menopause?
- Im uncomfortable and/or dont feel well. Is there a way to safely treat my symptoms?
- Ive heard that soy products or herbal supplements may help. Are these effective? Are they good options for me?
- Am I a candidate for;hormone;replacement therapy?
- What are the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy?
- Am I at risk for heart disease or;osteoporosis?
- Do I need any tests, such as bone density screening?
- Now that Im going through menopause, what changes, if any, should I make to my;diet;and exercise?
Can We Prevent Acquiring Weight
Yes, provided you take the bull by the horns! Ideally, from the age of 40, the woman that wishes to avoid the normal weight gain of menopause has all passion to require herself to excellent health of life.This suggests working out and also carefully checking her diet regimen. Which Of The Following Are Hormonal-Related Symptoms Of Menopause?
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How Long Should I Take Hormone Therapy
In general, there is no time limit to how long you can take hormone therapy. You should take the lowest dose of hormone therapy that works for you, and continue routine monitoring with your healthcare provider to reevaluate your treatment plan each year. If you develop a new medical condition while taking HT, see your provider to discuss if its still safe to continue taking HT.
Why Does Menopause Happen
Natural menopause menopause that happens in your early 50s and is not caused by surgery or another medical condition is a normal part of aging. Menopause is defined as a complete year without menstrual bleeding, in the absence of any surgery or medical condition that may cause bleeding to artificially stop As you age, the reproductive cycle begins to slow down and prepares to stop. This cycle has been continuously functioning since puberty. As menopause nears, the ovaries make less of a hormone called estrogen. When this decrease occurs, your menstrual cycle starts to change. It can become irregular and then stop. Physical changes can also happen as your body adapts to different levels of hormones. The symptoms you experience during each stage of menopause are all part of your bodys adjustment to these changes.
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Breast Cancer And Hrt
Women over 50 years of age who use combined oestrogen and progestogen replacement for less than five years have little or no increased risk of breast cancer. Women who use combined HRT for more than five years have a slightly increased risk. Women on oestrogen alone have no increased risk up to 15 years of usage.
There is no evidence to suggest that a woman with a family history of breast cancer will have an added increased risk of developing breast cancer if she uses HRT. The risk with combined oestrogen and progestogen is greater than with oestrogen alone, or with newer HRT agents such as tibolone , and may also depend on the type of progestogen used. Studies suggest that medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone have higher risks than dydrogesterone and progesterone.
Why An Oophorectomy Might Be Necessary
An oophorectomy is often recommended by doctors to inhibit the development of chronic diseases. Patients at greater risk for breast or ovarian cancer based on family history may be advised to have one or both ovaries removed. In many cases, an oophorectomy is performed alongside a hysterectomy, which would similarly induce surgical menopause.
The relief of chronic and persistent pelvic pain or symptoms of endometriosis have also been cited as reasons for undergoing an oophorectomy. Others include:
- Ovarian torsion
- Weight gain
To control the adverse effects of surgical menopause, your doctor might suggest hormone replacement therapy. HRT addresses the sometimes severe hormonal imbalances in your body brought on by surgical menopause.;
Menopause symptoms can be painful and disrupt your daily activities. HRT helps alleviate those symptoms while simultaneously curbing bone loss and aiding in the prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.;
This is particularly critical for women under 45 years of age who have an oophorectomy prior to experiencing natural menopause. They possess a greater chance of developing heart disease, neurological issues, and cancer without HRT.;
Surgical menopause symptoms aside, dont start HRT if you have:
- A personal or family history of ovarian, uterine, or breast cancer;
- A personal history of thrombosis, or blood clots
- Untreated high blood pressure;
- Liver disease
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Other Physical And Mental Changes At Midlife
Some common midlife changes that are often attributed to menopause are not necessarily related to the fluctuating or decreasing hormone levels of menopause. The four most commonly reported changes include mood changes and depression; insomnia or other sleep problems; cognitive or memory problems; and decline in sexual desire, function, or both. Other physical changes that crop up in the middle years include weight gain, urinary incontinence, heart palpitations, dry skin and hair, and headaches. For these, a hormonal link is possible, but has not been proved. Consider the fact that men, who don’t experience a dramatic drop in hormone levels in their early 50s, often notice many of these same symptoms!
Hrt Does Not Cause Weight Gain
Weight gain at the menopause is related to age and lifestyle factors. An increase in body fat, especially around the abdomen, can occur during menopause because of hormonal changes, although exactly why this happens is not clear. Normal age-related decrease in muscle tissue, and a decrease in exercise levels, can also contribute to weight gain.
Most studies do not show a link between weight gain and HRT use. If a woman is prone to weight gain during her middle years, she will put on weight whether or not she uses HRT.;
Some women may experience symptoms at the start of treatment, including bloating, fluid retention and breast fullness, which may be misinterpreted as weight gain. These symptoms usually disappear once the therapy doses are changed to suit the individual.
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Low Sex Drive Could Be Low Testosterone
Testosterone is typically thought of as a male hormone, but both men and women have it. Low testosterone levels may cause low libido. In one study of more than 800 postmenopausal women reporting low sex drive, those who received 150 or 300 micrograms per day of testosterone in the form of a topical patch reported more sexual desire and less distress than women who received a placebo. Women receiving extra testosterone also reported more satisfying sexual experiences compared to women who took a placebo. However, women who took 300 micrograms of testosterone per day had more unwanted hair growth than women who took the placebo. Men can get low testosterone, too. The condition has been referred to as andropause in males.
What Causes Breast Soreness
Changing levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone are the usual cause of breast pain during perimenopause and menopause. As you enter perimenopause, estrogen and progesterone levels rise and fall in unpredictable patterns before starting to taper off. The spikes in hormone levels can affect breast tissue, making your breasts hurt.
Breast soreness should improve once your periods stop and your body no longer produces estrogen. If you take hormone therapy to treat menopause symptoms, you may continue to have sore breasts.
Your breast soreness may be related to menopause, or it could be a symptom of another condition. Your risk of having breast soreness is higher if you:
- take certain medicines, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor , diuretics, digitalis preparations, methyldopa or spironolactone
- experience a breast infection
- have cysts in your breasts
- have a fibroadenoma or a noncancerous lump in the breast
- wear a poorly fitting bra, especially one with an underwire
- gain weight or have large breasts
Though rare, breast cancer can cause breast soreness. Most breast pain isnt due to cancer. However, finding a lump in your breast that is accompanied by pain is stressful and causes worry. So see your doctor to find out the next steps of evaluation. There are noncancerous conditions that can cause breast lumps and soreness. Your doctor can order tests to find out whats causing the problem.
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Ht Indications Contraindications And Adverse Effects/risks
Indications for hormone therapy can be symptomatic or preventive. However, the application of HT to prevent sequelae of menopause is controversial, although some consensus has been reached regarding the use of HT to relieve symptoms.
The following are common clinical indications for prescribing HT:
To relieve vasomotor symptoms
To improve urogenital symptoms
To prevent osteoporosis
No absolute contraindications of HT have been established. However, relative contraindications exist in certain clinical situations, such as patients with the following findings:
A history of breast cancer*
A history of endometrial cancer*
* Note that many clinicians do not prescribe HT for women with a previous history of breast or endometrial cancer.
Adverse effects and risks
Possible transient adverse effects are as follows:
Bloating, weight gain , fluid retention
Potential risks of HT in postmenopausal women include the following:
How Should Hrt Be Taken For Different Problems
Hormone replacement therapy ;is usually recommended to women whose age is less than 60 years . In the following text, you will come to know about the dosage and form of HRT required for different problems.
- In order to treat problems like vaginal dryness or pain during sexual intercourse, you must go for low doses of vaginal estrogen. The doctors recommend estrogen through the vagina in fewer amounts.
- In order to treat hot flashes, you might require a comparatively higher dosage of estrogen therapy to affect the whole body.
- The women who have a uterus intact with them and who want to prevent the occurrence of uterine cancer must take estrogen along with progestin for about five years maximum. But remember, this duration of time may vary in women.
- The women whose uterus has been removed surgically can take estrogen alone as it would be safer. Using estrogen therapy alone is always a safer option.
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Can Menopause Be Treated
Menopause is a natural process that your body goes through. In some cases, you may not need any treatment for menopause. When treatment for menopause is discussed, its about treating the symptoms of menopause that disrupt your life. There are many different types of treatments for the symptoms of menopause. The main types of treatment for menopause are:
It is important to talk to your healthcare provider while you are going through menopause to craft a treatment plan that works for you. Every person is different and has unique needs.
Treatments For Menopausal Symptoms: Benefits And Risks
Some women have mild menopausal symptoms and may not seek medical treatment. Those women who have moderate to severe symptoms before, during, or after menopause may decide to take hormone replacement therapy to alleviate the symptoms. An estrogen or a combination of estrogen plus progestin is taken to replace the hormones released previously by the ovaries. Estrogens are commonly delivered by pill form or through a skin patch. The estrogen may be synthesized from a plant source or obtained from the urine of pregnant horses. The latter, such as Premarin is administered most commonly as a pill. Women who are still cycling often take an estrogen pill daily, adding progestin for 1214 days a month, followed by progestin withdrawal to allow menstruation to occur. A daily estrogen plus progestin pill is given most commonly to women who have stopped cycling. Estrogen-containing vaginal creams are also used to decrease vaginal dryness and lessen painful coitus.
Earlier studies also reported that HRT increased short-term memory and the ability to learn new tasks and decreased the risk of developing Alzheimers disease by 40%. However, a large controlled study of nearly 3000 women found that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women who have had a hysterectomy not only failed to prevent memory loss, but actually increased the risk of dementia.
TABLE 7.2. Possible Benefits and Risks of Estrogen Replacement Therapy for Menopause
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Actions For This Page
- Menopausal symptoms can be managed with education, lifestyle changes, support and hormone replacement therapy , also known as menopausal hormone therapy .
- In the early postmenopausal years, HRT is an effective therapy for menopausal symptoms. In most women with moderate to severe symptoms, the benefits outweigh the small increases in risk.
- The long-term use of HRT has some benefits, but also has some risks.
- The current role of HRT is for menopausal symptom relief, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration required for the control of bothersome menopausal symptoms.
- The decision to use HRT, and for how long it should be used, must be based on individual assessment and needs.
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
The SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene have been used primarily for their antiestrogenic properties and not to relieve menopausal symptoms. However, ospemifene, a SERM, can be used to treat dyspareunia due to vaginal atrophy if women cannot use estrogen or a vaginal drug or if they prefer to use an oral drug other than estrogen; dose is 60 mg orally once a day . In women who have recently been taking hormone therapy, hot flushes may temporarily increase, but in most women, hot flushes resolve after about 6 weeks.
Bazedoxifene is given with conjugated estrogens; it can relieve hot flushes, improve sleep, prevent bone loss, and lessen symptoms of vaginal atrophy.
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How Can You Decide Whether Hormone Replacement Therapy Is The Correct Option For You Or Not
You cannot decide on your own whether;hormone replacement therapy ;is the best option for you or not. You will always need to get yourself monitored by a doctor regularly to make a decision with his or her help. The decision of whether its a good option for you or not has to be made keeping in view your medical history, the risk factors that are involved, and if HRT can help you or not.
In your life at different stages, you will feel that the hormone changes or hormone deficiencies can cause significant impacts on your body. Even though hormone imbalance is a part of life, it still can cause negative effects on your health and healthy lifestyle. To your benefit,;hormone replacement therapy, also known as HRT, is ready to minimize the majority of these unwanted symptoms.
As a matter of fact, the advantages of hormone replacement therapy include improving the mental and physical health of both men and women. And the most interesting and beneficial thing about;hormone replacement therapy ;is that it can be tailored according to each one of your bodies needs individually. In this article, we will tell you about the most significant symptoms that if you might feel, you should know that you need hormone replacement therapy .
How Does Menopause Affect Heart Health
People are more likely to develop;heart disease;after menopause. Lower estrogen levels may be part of the cause. It also could be that other health issues that are more common as people get older. These include gaining weight, becoming less active, and developing;high blood pressure;or;diabetes. You can reduce your risk of these health problems by eating a variety of healthy, nutrient-rich foods. It also helps to stay active and maintain an appropriate weight.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Menopause
Women may have different signs or symptoms at menopause. Thats because estrogen is used by many parts of your body. As you have less estrogen, you could have various symptoms. Many women experience very mild symptoms that are easily treated by lifestyle changes, like avoiding caffeine or carrying a portable fan to use when a hot flash strikes. Some women dont require any treatment at all. Other symptoms can be more problematic.
Here are the most common changes you might notice at midlife. Some may be part of aging rather than directly related to menopause.
Change in your period. This might be what you notice first. Your periods may no longer be regular. They may be shorter or last longer. You might bleed more or less than usual. These are all normal changes, but to make sure there isnt a problem, see your doctor if:
- Your periods come very close together
- You have heavy bleeding
- Your periods last more than a week
- Your periods resume after no bleeding for more than a year
Vaginal health and bladder control. Your vagina may get drier. This could make sexual intercourse uncomfortable. Or, you could have other health problems, such as vaginal or bladder infections. Some women also find it hard to hold their urine long enough to get to the bathroom. This loss of bladder control is called incontinence. You may have a sudden urge to urinate, or urine may leak during exercise, sneezing, or laughing.