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Which Hormone Is Involved In Female Puberty Pregnancy And Menopause

How Is Amenorrhoea Treated

Female Hormones: Estrogen & Progesterone

Treatment of amenorrhoea depends on the underlying cause. Women are counselled regarding the cause and management of amenorrhoea, and any impact on their ability to conceive a child. A number of treatments are available, including: women who are very underweight through not eating enough or exercising too much often do not have periods; this may be resolved by putting on weight and/or exercising less surgery and/or medication may be required for pituitary conditions. Women with tumours producing excess prolactin are usually treated with a class of drugs called dopamine agonists, which reduce prolactin levels hormone replacement therapy prescribing the missing hypothalamic or pituitary hormones that regulate reproduction for women who want to become pregnant surgery may be required in patients with uterine or vaginal abnormalities dating from birth.

How Is Amenorrhoea Diagnosed

The diagnosis of amenorrhoea is made from a history of lack of menstrual cycles. A pregnancy test must always be carried out to rule out pregnancy as the cause of amenorrhoea. Once this has been completed, initial blood tests include measurement of hormones involved in regulation of reproduction such as follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid function tests and androgen levels.

In women who have never had menstrual periods, an ultrasound scan will be done to look at the uterus and the anatomy of the vagina.

Further tests such as a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain may be performed if hypothalamic or pituitary disease is suggested from the history or the initial tests.

All of these tests can be carried out as an outpatient.

Can Menopause Be Treated

Menopause is a natural process that your body goes through. In some cases, you may not need any treatment for menopause. When treatment for menopause is discussed, its about treating the symptoms of menopause that disrupt your life. There are many different types of treatments for the symptoms of menopause. The main types of treatment for menopause are:

It is important to talk to your healthcare provider while you are going through menopause to craft a treatment plan that works for you. Every person is different and has unique needs.

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What Do The Ovaries Do

The ovaries have two main reproductive functions in the body. They produce oocytes for fertilisation and they produce the reproductive hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. The function of the ovaries is controlled by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone released from nerve cells in the hypothalamus which send their messages to the pituitary gland to produce luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. These are carried in the bloodstream to control the menstrual cycle.

The ovaries release an egg at the midway point of each menstrual cycle. Usually, only a single oocyte from one ovary is released during each menstrual cycle, with each ovary taking an alternate turn in releasing an egg.;A female baby is born with all the eggs that she will ever have.This is estimated to be around two million, but by the time a girl reaches puberty, this number has decreased to about 400,000 eggs stored in her ovaries. From puberty to the menopause, only about 400500 eggs will reach maturity, be released from the ovary and be capable of being fertilised in the fallopian tubes/uterine tube/oviduct of the female reproductive tract.

The ovarian phases of a 28-day menstrual cycle. Ovulation occurs mid-cycle.

What Happens To Your Hormones During Menopause

Estrogen Fluctuations through Life

All women go through menopause, but many dont really think about until it comes along. It marks a significant point in life for many women, and brings with it a host of symptoms due to changing hormone levels.; In this article we take a look at the key hormones that change during the menopause, but first, let’s define what we mean by menopause.

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What Cyclical Changes Happen To The Breasts During The Menstrual Cycle

Each month, women go through changes in the hormones that make up the normal menstrual cycle. The hormone estrogen is produced by the ovaries in the first half of the menstrual cycle. It stimulates the growth of milk ducts in the breasts. The increasing level of estrogen leads to ovulation halfway through the cycle. Next, the hormone progesterone takes over in the second half of the cycle. It stimulates the formation of the milk glands. These hormones are believed to be responsible for the cyclical changes that many women feel in their breasts just before menstruation. These include swelling, pain, and soreness.

During menstruation, many women also have changes in breast texture. Their breasts may feel very lumpy. This is because the glands in the breast are enlarging to get ready for a possible pregnancy. If pregnancy does not happen, the breasts go back to normal size. Once menstruation starts, the cycle begins again.

What Hormones Do The Ovaries Produce

The major hormones secreted by the ovaries are oestrogen and progesterone, both important hormones in the menstrual cycle.;Oestrogen production dominates in the first half of the menstrual cycle before ovulation, and progesterone production dominates during the second half of the menstrual cycle when the corpus luteum has formed.;Both hormones are important in preparing the lining of the womb for pregnancy and the implantation of a fertilised egg, or embryo.

If conception occurs during any one menstrual cycle, the corpus luteum does not lose its ability to function and continues to secrete oestrogen and progesterone, allowing the embryo to implant in the lining of the womb and form a placenta. At this point, development of the foetus begins.;

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What Is Hormone Therapy

During menopause, your body goes through major hormonal changes, decreasing the amount of hormones it makes particularly estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries. When your ovaries no longer make enough estrogen and progesterone, hormone therapy can be used as a supplement. Hormone therapy boosts your hormone levels and can help relieve some symptoms of menopause. Its also used as a preventative measure for osteoporosis.

There are two main types of hormone therapy:

  • Estrogen therapy : In this treatment, estrogen is taken alone. Its typically prescribed in a low dose and can be taken as a pill or patch. ET can also be given to you as a cream, vaginal ring, gel or spray. This type of treatment is used after a hysterectomy. Estrogen alone cant be used if a woman still has a uterus.
  • Estrogen Progesterone/Progestin Hormone Therapy : This treatment is also called combination therapy because it uses doses of estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone is available in its natural form, or also as a progestin . This type of hormone therapy is used if you still have your uterus.

Hormone therapy can relieve many of the symptoms of menopause, including:

  • Hot flashes and night sweats.
  • Vaginal dryness.

Can Menopause Affect Sleep

Hormones: Puberty to Menopause

Some women may experience trouble sleeping through the night and insomnia during menopause. Insomnia is an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep at night. This can be a normal side effect of menopause itself, or it could be due to another symptom of menopause. Hot flashes are a common culprit of sleepless nights during menopause.

If hot flashes keep you awake at night, try:

  • Staying cool at night by wearing loose clothing.
  • Keeping your bedroom well-ventilated.

Avoiding certain foods and behaviors that trigger your hot flashes. If spicy food typically sets off a hot flash, avoid eating anything spicy before bed.

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Hormones From Puberty To Post

If youre a woman, you probably know that our bodies go through myriad changes during the course of our lives. Hormones play an integral role in those changes at each stage of development, from puberty to post-menopause. This is the first in a four-part series the Society For Womens Health Research will be publishing about hormones across the lifespan read on to learn more!

What exactly are hormones? The Virginia Womens Center offers a good definition: A hormone is a chemical communicator or connector that carries messages to and from all the organs in the body. A hormone acts like a key that fits into a specific lock or receptor site at each organ. This inter-organ communication helps the body to remain balanced and function optimally.

At birth, levels of these hormones are high, but they decrease within a few months and remain low until puberty]. During puberty, physical changes in the body are regulated by changes in the levels of hormones that are being produced. In early puberty, hormone levels increase and stimulate production of sex hormones , including estrogen. This increase in estrogen causes the physical changes associated with puberty in girls, including maturation of the breasts, ovaries, uterus, and vagina, as well as a girls first period.

Menopause officially begins 12 months after a womans last period. After that, a woman is considered to be in postmenopause phase of her life.

  • How will menopause affect my health long-term?
  • Is Having A Hard Time Concentrating And Being Forgetful A Normal Part Of Menopause

    Unfortunately, concentration and minor memory problems can be a normal part of menopause. Though this doesnt happen to everyone, it can happen. Doctors arent sure why this happens. If youre having memory problems during menopause, call your healthcare provider. There are several activities that have been shown to stimulate the brain and help rejuvenate your memory. These activities can include:

    • Doing crossword puzzles and other mentally stimulating activities like reading and doing math problems.
    • Cutting back on passive activities like watching TV.
    • Getting plenty of exercise.

    Keep in mind that depression and anxiety can also impact your memory. These conditions can be linked to menopause.

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    Chances Of Getting Pregnant During Perimenopause And Postmenopause

    If you hope to become pregnant during perimenopause, and you have not conceived even after six months of trying, you should consult a doctor. The below measures can increase your chances of getting pregnant:

    • Intercourse during ovulation: Observe the signs of ovulation such as breast tenderness, abdominal bloating, increased sex drive, slight cramping, and white discharge. Ovulation time is the most fertile time in the menstrual cycle.
    • Diet and exercise: Have a balanced diet and exercise to stay fit and healthy. These will improve the chances of conception.

    With lifestyle changes and medical help, you might get pregnant during the perimenopausal stage. But is it safe for you and the baby?

    Are There Any Risks Related To Hormone Therapy


    Like most prescribed medications, there are risks for hormone therapy. Some known health risks include:

    • Endometrial cancer .
    • Gallstones and gallbladder issues.

    Going on hormone therapy is an individualized decision. Discuss all past medical conditions and your family history with your healthcare provider to understand the risks versus benefits of hormone therapy for you.

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    What Is Being Tested

    Follicle-stimulating hormone is a hormone associated with reproduction and the development of eggs in women and sperm in men. This test measures FSH in the blood.

    FSH is made by the pituitary gland, a small organ located in the center of the head behind the sinus cavity at the base of the brain. Control of FSH production is a complex system involving the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland, and the hormones

    Follicle-stimulating hormone is a hormone associated with reproduction and the development of eggs in women and sperm in men. This test measures FSH in the blood.

    FSH is made by the pituitary gland, a small organ located in the center of the head behind the sinus cavity at the base of the brain. Control of FSH production is a complex system involving the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland, and the hormones produced by the ovaries or testicles. The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone , which stimulates the pituitary to release FSH and luteinizing hormone , a closely related hormone also involved in reproduction.

    Disorders affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary, and/or the ovaries or testicles can cause the production of too much or too little FSH, resulting in a variety of conditions such as infertility, abnormal menstrual cycles, or early or delayed puberty.

    Stages In Female When Level Of Estrogen Changes:

    Following are the stages:

  • At the onset of puberty , the level of estrogen in females increases. It leadsto symptoms like the development of secondary sex characteristics, breast development,wider hips, pubic hairs, and menstruation.
  • During pregnancy level of estrogen increases.
  • After pregnancy estrogen level decreases.
  • After menopause age of 50, the level of estrogen decreases naturally.
  • Hypogonadism or diminished function of ovaries and polycystic ovarian syndromes leadsto low levels of estrogen in females.
  • Anorexia or excessive exercise leads to a diminished level of fats in the human body, italso causes the body to produce low levels of estrogen.
  • Hormone imbalance:

    Pregnancy and menopause are two conditions in the female body when there is a high fluctuation of estrogen levels. During pregnancy level of estrogen is very high. After menopause level of estrogen is almost diminished in the female body. At the time of ovulation estrogen level is high in the female body, while at beginning of menstrual cycle the level of estrogen is quite low.

    There are two types of hormone imbalance:

    Excess hormone : High estrogen level has an effect on breast causing fibrocystic breast disease.Also leads to suppression of thyroid hormone activity and orgasm. It stimulates the appetite.

    • Hot flashes.
    • Osteoporosis leads to bone softening and fracturing.
    • Increased weight and slowed metabolism.
    • Dryness of skin.

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    Neuroendocrine Changes During Puberty And Perimenopause

    Puberty is initiated in late childhood through a cascade of neuroendocrine changes that results in extensive physical growth, sexual maturation, and reproductive capability. Pubertal maturation consists of two associated but independent processes: adrenarche, the reappearance of adrenal androgen production ; and gonadarche, the pubertal reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis a few years later . Menarche, the initiation of the menstrual cycle, occurs toward the end of puberty, around the ages of 1213 in most developed countries .

    Perimenopause is defined as the period immediately preceding menopause when endocrinological, biological, and clinical features of approaching menopause commence . Women typically begin the shift from a reproductive state to non-reproductive state during their mid-to late 40s, and they remain in this transitory state for approximately 45 years before reaching menopause . Perimenopause culminates with menopause, when menses have ceased for a period of at least 12 consecutive months .

    Life cycle of estrogen.

    Note. This depiction of the estrogen changes across womens life cycles provides a representation of the chaotic and higher estrogen levels in pubertal and perimenopausal women. . Adapted from and reprinted with permission.

    Are There Any Side

    Perimenopause: Management, Estrogens & Other Hormones Gynecology | Lecturio

    HRT can cause tender breasts, water retention, weight gain, and nausea. These symptoms may depend on the type of HRT that is prescribed and women should seek advice from their doctor if they have concerns about the side-effects or they feel that they are unacceptable. For example, changing the type of prescription or reducing the overall dose of hormones may reduce unwanted side-effects.

    It is recommended that HRT is only used to treat the short-term menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats, and only for a period of two to three years. Longer-term use has been linked with a small increase in the risk of breast cancer, blood clots in the veins and . However, it is important to consider the balance of risks and benefits of taking HRT and this should be discussed with a doctor.

    Bisphosphonates can cause a change in bowel habits, a feeling of sickness and tiredness, though these usually wear off after a few days of beginning treatment.

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    Changes In Estrogen Levels

    There are many times throughout a person’s life when estrogen levels may change. For example, estrogen levels naturally increase during puberty and during pregnancy. Estrogen levels fall after menopause, or when a woman stops menstruating. This reduction in estrogen production can cause symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and loss of sex drive. Estrogen levels also decrease after childbirth.

    Other conditions that can cause estrogen levels to drop include hypogonadism and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Extreme exercise and anorexia can also cause a decrease in estrogen levels because women with low body fat may not be able to produce adequate amounts of estrogen.

    Some postmenopausal women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have long durations of estrogen deficiency. Recent research has found that this deficiency could increase the risk of having more severe fibrosis, according to a study published in the journal Hepatology.

    Can I Get Pregnant During Menopause

    The possibility of pregnancy disappears once you are postmenopausal, you have been without your period for an entire year . However, you can actually get pregnant during the menopause transition . If you dont want to become pregnant, you should continue to use some form of birth control until you have gone fully through menopause. Ask your healthcare provider before you stop using contraception.

    For some women, getting pregnant can be difficult once theyre in their late 30s and 40s because of a decline in fertility. However, if becoming pregnant is the goal, there are fertility-enhancing treatments and techniques that can help you get pregnant. Make sure to speak to your healthcare provider about these options.

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    What Are The Risks Of Pregnancy During Perimenopause And Menopause

    Pregnancy becomes riskier as you age above 35. Here are some of the risks for both you and the baby .

    • IVF treatment could result in multiple fetuses. This is likely to cause preterm labor, low birth weight in babies and delivery complications.
    • High blood pressure could lead to preeclampsia.
    • Gestational diabetes.
    • Placenta previa, in which the placenta lies low in the womb and causes problems during childbirth.
    • Placental abruption in which the placenta is detached from the womb, causing fetal growth problems, stillbirth, and premature birth.
    • Stillbirth or miscarriage.


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