What Is Induced Menopause
“Induced”, “sudden” or “surgical” menopause happens when a woman goes through an immediate and premature menopause. This occurs when her ovaries no longer produce the hormones estrogen, progesterone and testosterone.
This may be caused by:
- surgery to remove your ovaries;
- radiation treatment; or
- ovarian malfunction.
Women going through induced menopause may have more severe menopausal symptoms, and are usually treated with hormone therapy.
Bone Density And Calcium Mobilization
Menopause represents a vulnerable time for a womans skeletal health. Estrogen declines associated with menopause increase bone remodeling, leading to an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption.153,154 This increase in bone remodeling persists over several years and becomes associated with an increased rate of bone loss.155,156 Early cross-sectional studies compared bone mineral density in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women and generally reported lower BMD in the peri- and post- menopausal periods.157159 However, these cross-sectional studies could not determine when bone loss began or the rates of bone loss during various phases of the transition.160
Other earlier studies showed bone loss in the perimenopausal period, but not in the premenopausal period.162 The first longitudinal study using state-of-the-art dual energy x-ray absorptiometry demonstrated significant change in femoral neck BMD, but not lumbar spine BMD among perimenopausal women.163 Finally, a longitudinal study of 75 women with a mean age of 46 years at baseline, who were followed for 9.5 years, showed that bone loss began about 23 years before menopause and ended 34 years after the last menses.164 The total loss in the spine and femoral neck was 10.5% and 5.3%, respectively, over the menopausal period. Results suggested that menopausal bone loss is a composite of loss caused by estrogen deprivation and age for the hip, but estrogen deprivation alone for the spine.164
Psychological Symptoms Of Menopause
Hormonal changes and sleep deprivation can contribute to mood changes, anxiety, irritability, forgetfulness, and trouble concentrating or making decisions. Low levels of oestrogen are associated with lower levels of serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, emotions and sleep. Depression is not more common at menopause than at other stages of life, but a past history of depression, particularly post-natal depression, and stress during the peri-menopause may make a woman more likely to succumb to mood problems. .
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How Do I Know If I Am In Menopause
Menopause is defined as 12 consecutive months without having a menstrual cycle. If you are currently not having periods, but it has not yet been 12 full months, you might be in menopause, but you cannot be sure until you have gone a full year without having a period.
Some cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation can also lead to medical menopause, which can be temporary or permanent.
Menopause In The 1930s 1940s 1960s 1970s
Medical research amped up in the 19th Century so thankfully, they stopped locking us up!
In the 1930s menopause was believed to be a disease of deficiency. By the 70s;the medical fraternity was prescribing estrogen replacement therapy touting it as our freedom.
Synthetic estrogen was developed in 1938, and Premarin in 1942. Premarin is used in HRT, though Im not sure if it still comes from pregnant horse urine! Youll need to check that one with your doctor.
In the 1960s, a gynaecologist and his wife, Robert and Thelma Wilson, arguing that menopause robbed women of their femininity, ruined the quality of their lives, and recommended estrogen therapy.;Dr Wilson then wrote a book, Feminine Forever, in which he called menopause an estrogen deficiency disease. The book became a best seller with feminists.
The International Menopause Society was founded in the 1970s and the first International Congress on Menopause was organised in Paris in 1976.
All in all, the information available around menopause throughout the decades is sketchy.
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Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
SERMs are a category of drugs, either synthetically produced or derived from a botanical source, that act selectively as agonists or antagonists on the estrogen receptors throughout the body. The most commonly prescribed SERMs are raloxifene and tamoxifen. Raloxifene exhibits oestrogen agonist activity on bone and lipids, and antagonist activity on breast and the endometrium. Tamoxifen is in widespread use for treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. Raloxifene prevents vertebral fractures in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women and reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer.
Are Hormone Levels Or Other Blood Tests Helpful In Detecting Menopause
Because hormone levels may fluctuate greatly in an individual woman, even from one day to the next, hormone levels are not a reliable indicator for diagnosing menopause. Even if levels are low one day, they may be high the next day in the same woman. There is no single blood test that reliably predicts when a woman is going through menopause, or menopausal transition. Therefore there is currently no proven role for blood testing regarding menopause except for tests to exclude medical causes of erratic menstrual periods other than menopause. The only way to diagnose menopause is to observe lack of menstrual periods for 12 months in a woman in the expected age range.
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The Differences In Menopause For Women Geographically
PubMed tells us the signs of meno differ geographically. For example, in the West, were very familiar with the term hot flush.
A painful shoulder is common in Japan and eyesight issues in India. The onset of perimenopause occurs earlier on average in India than it does for Westerners and they dont view it nearly as negatively as we do. This is a key point.
Menopause As The Change Of Life
Menopause is also commonly called the change of life. Ive felt my life-changing so its an accurate description in my opinion. The ancient wisdom of; Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda have a beautiful way of looking at the change. For example, Ive already referred to second spring TCMs term for menopause. They also recognise menstruation as heavenly waters and fertility as ripening the fruit. Beautiful! Ayurveda looks at a womans different life stages as the maiden, the mother and the crone .
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Examples Of Menopause In A Sentence
menopauseForbesmenopauseScientific AmericanmenopauseWashington PostmenopauseSELFmenopauseVoguemenopauseoregonlivemenopauseSTATmenopauseSELF
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘menopause.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
Removal Of The Ovaries
If you have surgery to remove your ovaries , you will experience menopause immediately because the organs that produce hormones and release eggs are no longer present.
Menopause that occurs from the absence of ovaries is known as surgical menopause.;
Conditions like endometriosis, tumors, and cancer may require a person to have their ovaries removed.
People who have an oophorectomy will experience typical menopause symptoms; however, rather than having them come on gradually as they would with natural menopause, they will experience them all at once, which can be intense.
Hormone replacement therapies can be used to treat menopause symptoms. However, hormone therapy is not recommended for people being treated for breast cancer, as it may increase the risk of recurrence.
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Mood And Memory Effects
Menopause-related cognitive impairment can be confused with the mild cognitive impairment that precedes dementia. Tentative evidence has found that forgetfulness affects about half of menopausal women and is probably caused by the effects of declining estrogen levels on the brain, or perhaps by reduced blood flow to the brain during hot flashes.
Change : Lifespan Artifact Hypothesis
The lifespan artifact hypothesis states that increased longevity could have provided a means for the menopause phenotype to have evolved in humans . Modern humans live longer than did our ancestors, and females outlive their innate reproductive capacities. Archeological analyses yield estimates that premodern human lifespans extended to only 50 or 55 years , approximately 1530 years shorter than estimates for individuals in contemporary industrialized societies . The related statistic life expectancy at birth has been shown to have increased over time .
TABLE 2.Life expectancy at birth for time periods in human history.
Most explanations for increased longevity involve extrinsic factors, such as avoiding predation, improving living conditions and health, and industrialization. Explanations involving intrinsic factors include genetic components, whether indirectly or directly . Telomere and telomerase variation in particular have been cited as factors in extending human lifespan . Genes associated with lifespan, involving pleiotropic trade-offs between early reproduction and death, have been identified in non-human animals ; and longevity has been demonstrated to be a trait upon which selection can operate . Whether and how these genetic factors affect human lifespan is unknown.
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Feeling Positive About The Menopause
Women may experience physical and emotional changes during menopause but that doesnt mean life has taken a turn for the worse! Many women are prompted at this time to take stock of their lives and set new goals. The menopause occurs at a time when many women may be juggling roles as mothers of teenagers, as carers of elderly parents, and as members of the workforce. Experts suggest that creating some me time is important to maintain life balance. Menopause can be seen as a new beginning: its a good time to assess lifestyle, health and to make a commitment to strive for continuing wellness in the mature years.;
Menopause And Ovarian Function
Menopause occurs in most women between ages 45 and 55, although it may begin as early as age 40 or be delayed to the late 50s. The age of onset appears to be determined in large part by the hereditary background of the individual. In fact, genes associated with age variations in normal menopause have been identified on multiple chromosomes. However, nutrition and health habits can also influence the age of onset. Premature menopause, which takes place spontaneously before age 40, occurs in about 8 percent of women. The spontaneous onset of menopause before age 45 is sometimes referred to as early menopause. Early or premature menopause may be induced if the ovaries are surgically removed or incidentally damaged or destroyed .
The natural life of the ovaries is about 35 years, and thus the decline of ovarian function is a normal result of aging, though it is accelerated as menopause approaches. During the reproductive years, follicles in the ovaries mature and release their ova periodically under hypothalamic-pituitary stimulation. However, in the years immediately preceding menopause, a transitional phase known as perimenopause which can begin as early as 10 years before menopause, first some follicles and later all follicles fail to rupture and release their ova. In the last one or two years of perimenopause, estrogen levels decline quickly.
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What Are The Signs Of Menopause
Menopause is a natural process that happens to every woman as she grows older, and is not a medical problem, disease or illness. Still, some women may have a hard time because of the changes in hormone levels during menopause.
There are many possible signs of menopause and each woman feels them differently. Most women have no or few menopausal symptoms while some women have many moderate or severe symptoms.
The clearest signs of the start of menopause are irregular periods , and when blood flow becomes lighter or heavier.
Other signs may include some of the following:
- weight gain;
- mood swings; and
- urinary tract infections.
Most of the time, these symptoms will lessen or go away after a woman has finished menopause.
What Affects The Age You Start Menopause
Certain factors may affect when you begin menopause. Your family history, medical conditions, and hormones all play a role in when menopause is likely to occur for you.
Smoking may influence the age of menopause onset. Studies have found that smoking during the reproductive years was significantly associated with earlier menopause.
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How Can Symptoms Be Handled
Being informed about what may happen during the menopause transition is a very good starting point.
Women are encouraged to pay attention to their health, including quitting smoking, eating well, exercising regularly and incorporating some relaxation techniques. Self-management strategies such as carrying a fan, dressing in layers, always having a cool drink and a facial water spray can be helpful. Avoiding spicy foods, caffeine and alcohol will also reduce flushing.
Some women may find relief from menopausal symptoms with herbal or alternative remedies, however most have not been studied or shown to be of benefit scientifically and some, like black cohosh, have been occasionally linked to serious side effects. Bioidentical hormones mixtures of hormones supplied by compounding chemists may be touted as beneficial and more natural than menopause hormone replacement therapy but there is inadequate evidence for their safety and effectiveness .
Doctors may prescribe other drugs to relieve symptoms, such as anti-depressants , gabapentin, and clonidine. .
Physical Symptoms Of Menopause
Symptoms commonly reported by peri- and post-menopausal women include hot flushes and night sweats, bodily aches and pains, dry skin, vaginal dryness, loss of libido, urinary frequency, and sleeping difficulties. Some women may have unwanted hair growth, thinning of scalp and pubic hair and skin changes. Not everyone finds the symptoms bothersome but about 60% of women will have mild symptoms for around 4-8 years. Twenty per cent of women will have no symptoms at all while another 20% will be severely affected, with symptoms continuing into their 60s or later3.;
Now that women live around one third of their lives after menopause, optimizing physical and mental health during this period is becoming more important. ;
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Alternative And Complementary Menopause Treatments
Some studies have found that soy products relieve hot flashes, but researchers are still looking into it. There arenât many large studies on whether other supplements such as black cohosh or âbioidenticalâ hormones work for menopause symptoms. Talk to your doctor before starting any herbal or dietary supplements.
Yoga, tai chi, and acupuncture are safer ways to manage menopause symptoms.
What Is The Evolutionary Purpose Of Menopause
The Slow Moon Climbs delves into the science, history and meaning of this life shift
Susan Mattern talks with students in group discussions during a history class.
Newswise Menopausethat time in every womans life when the ovaries no longer release an egg each month and menstruation ceases foreveris a rare thing among Earths infinitely varied creatures. Humans and a few species of whales are the only mammals that experience menopause, where females live on for many decades in spite of the inability to reproduce. Scientists, psychologists and doctors have been puzzling over that fact for centurieswhat good are older women once they lose their fertility? There must be some huge evolutionary benefit that renders womens lives so valuable post-reproduction that they actually live six to eight years longer than men everywhere around the world.
Mattern contends that menopause emerged when we evolved away from chimpanzees millions of years ago. Longevity is what separates humans from chimpanzees and other apes, explained the 53-year-old historian. On average, we live twice as long as chimpanzees. After menopause, women could care for their grandchildren, nieces and nephews.; They could forage and grow food, producing more than they consumed.; This idea is often called the Grandmother Hypothesis, a concept that emerged in the 1990s, wherein older women are favored by evolution because they enhance human survival.
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Contraception In The Peri
A womans fertility declines naturally in her 40s and the risk of pregnancy after the age of 50 years is estimated at less than one per cent but women may ovulate twice in a cycle and as late as three months before the final period. Women are advised to keep using contraception until two years after their last period if they experience the menopause under the age of 50, and for one year after the last period if aged 50 years or more2. Women using combined oral contraception ;are generally advised to cease by the age of 51 years and switch to a non-hormonal or progestogen-only method. The risks of ethinyl oestradiol-containing methods increase with age, especially if the woman is a smoker over the age of 35 .
Medical Definition Of Menopause
- Medical Editor: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Reviewed on 3/29/2021
Menopause: The time in a woman’s life when menstrual periods permanently stop; it is also called the “change of life.”
Menopause is defined as the time when there has been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. It is the end of fertility, the end of the childbearing years.
A woman can usually tell if she is approaching menopause because her menstrual periods starts changing. The medical terms used to describe this time are “perimenopause” and the “menopause transition.”
Natural menopause occurs when the ovaries naturally begin decreasing their production of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Induced menopause occurs if the ovaries are surgically removed or damaged by radiation or drugs. Due to the abrupt cutoff of ovarian hormones, induced menopause causes the sudden onset of hot flashes and other menopause-related symptoms such as a dry vagina and a decline in sex drive. Early menopause , whether natural or induced, carries a greater risk for heart disease and osteoporosis since there are more years spent beyond the protective cover of estrogen.
A “simple” hysterectomy before natural menopause should not affect the production of sex hormones and so not cause menopause .
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Phases Of The Menopausal Transition
Menopause is the anchor point of a woman’s transition to midlife and, because menstrual cycles can be irregular for many reasons, menopause can be declared only after 12 months of amenorrhea. Menopause occurs at a mean of 51.4 years of age for Western women, but the range can be as wide as 40 to 58 years of age. For many years, menopause was considered to be simply a consequence of the depletion of ovarian follicles . However, it is now clear that transitional processes and events begin several years before menopause itself, and continue for several years after menopause. This perimenopausal developmental transition in a woman’s life is a dynamic process that consists of a series of complex and interactive changes in the endocrine system and central nervous system.12
Gloria Bachmann, Nora J. Doty, in, 2010