Study Design And Participants
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ningyang County, Shandong Province, China in 2014 as part of the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: A lONgitudinal trial at Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine . The study was approved by Ruijin Hospital Ethics Committee of Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine. Informed consent was obtained from each participant after a detailed explanation of the purpose and nature of all procedures used. Of the 8922 participants in the REACTION trial, 3285 eligible women were included in the present study who met the following criteria: 1) available key data such as age, body mass index , renal function indices, sex hormone levels, serum lipid profiles, menstrual history, hypertension, diabetes, etc.; 2) no condition affecting the natural state of menopause and renal function such as premature ovarian failure, bilateral ovariectomy, uterectomy, pregnancy, lactation, chronic nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrectomy, and malignant tumors; and 3) no use of medications affecting the natural state of menopause and renal function including estrogens, androgens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, thiazide diuretics, methoxyflurane, tetracycline, penicillin, and sulphonamides. The women were assigned to one of three groups according to menopausal statusie, pre-menopause , peri-menopause , and post-menopause .
Figure 1 Flow chart for selection or grouping.
Symptoms Of Heart Disease
With menopause, factors conspire to change a womans risk for heart disease, Foody says. Its important for women to understand that while menopause transition is natural, some of the symptoms associated with it, such as heart palpitations or increases in blood pressure, can have significant consequences.
Women should check with their doctor to be sure what theyre experiencing is still within a range of normal, Foody notes.
Symptoms you should never ignore include:
1. Palpitations;Dont assume heart palpitations are natural flutters, says Rosen. Its important to identify atrial fibrillation, because this heart condition increases the risk of stroke, adds Foody.
2. Shortness of breath;If you were able to go up the stairs fine, and now you find you are short of breath, talk to your healthcare provider, says Foody. It could be a sign of congestive heart failure or coronary artery disease. Shortness of breath is also one of the most common symptoms of atrial fibrillation.
3. Pressure in the chest;It could be an indication of heart disease. Some women think that unless they have crushing chest pain, its not a heart attack, Foody reports. A feeling of fullness, squeezing or dull pressure in the chest that doesnt go away or that goes away and comes back could be a sign of a heart attack in women.
4. Headaches;They might be a sign of high blood pressure, so get any symptoms checked out.
Is There Anything Else I Need To Know About An Fsh Levels Test
There is an at-home test that measures FSH levels in urine. The kit is designed for women who want to find out if certain symptoms such as irregular periods, vaginal dryness, and hot flashes may be due to menopause or perimenopause. The test can show whether you have high FSH levels, a sign of menopause or perimenopause. But it doesn’t diagnose either condition. After taking the test, you should talk with your health care provider about the results.
Read Also: Is Dizziness A Sign Of Menopause
Hormone Biomarkers Of Reproductive Aging
Several hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are markers of ovarian aging, including FSH, estradiol, inhibin B and AMH. FSH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gonadtrophes and is regulated in part through negative feedback by inhibin B and estradiol, hence an indirect measure . As inhibin B and estradiol vary through each menstrual cycle, FSH levels fluctuate accordingly. With ovarian aging, lower inhibin B also results in decreased negative feedback to the pituitary, resulting in increased FSH secretion and higher early follicular FSH.
What Causes A Low Estrogen Level
There are several possible reasons why a woman might experience low estrogen production or levels.
First, if there is a low estradiol level coupled with high FSH levels and high LH levels, this can indicate a condition known as premature ovarian failure or primary ovarian insufficiency. This means that, even with proper hormonal stimulation, the ovaries are failing to produce a normal amount of estradiol. This can sometimes be due to a genetic condition, such as Turner syndrome, an autoimmune disorder, or exposure to certain toxins.
Second, if there is a low estradiol level coupled with normal or low FSH and LH levels, this can be due to a condition known as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This condition can occur because of severe stress, excessive alcohol intake, excessive exercise, or a problem with the pituitary gland in the brainâwhich stimulates the production of FSH and LH hormones.
You May Like: Do You Bleed When You Go Through Menopause
Mood And Memory Effects
Menopause-related cognitive impairment can be confused with the mild cognitive impairment that precedes dementia. Tentative evidence has found that forgetfulness affects about half of menopausal women and is probably caused by the effects of declining estrogen levels on the brain, or perhaps by reduced blood flow to the brain during hot flashes.
How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms Or Something To Be Concerned About
Irregular periods are common and normal during perimenopause . But other conditions can cause abnormalities in menstrual bleeding. If any of the following situations apply to you, see a doctor to rule out other causes.
- Your periods are changing to become very heavy, or accompanied by blood clots.
- Your periods last several days longer than usual.
- You spot or bleed after your period.
- You experience spotting after sex.
- Your periods occur closer together.
Potential causes of abnormal bleeding include hormonal imbalances, hormonal treatments, pregnancy, fibroids, blood-clotting problems or, rarely, cancer.
Also Check: Is It Normal To Spot After Menopause
What Do The Results Mean
The meaning of your results will depend on whether you are a woman, man, or child.
If you are a woman, high FSH levels may mean you have:
- Primary ovarian insufficiency , also known as premature ovarian failure. POI is the loss of ovarian function before the age of 40.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome , a common hormonal disorder affecting childbearing women. It is one of the leading causes of female infertility.
- Started menopause or are in perimenopause
- An ovarian tumor
- Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects sexual development in females. It often causes infertility.
If you are a woman, low FSH levels may mean:
- Your ovaries are not making enough eggs.
- Your pituitary gland is not working correctly.
- You have a problem with your hypothalamus, a part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and other important body functions.
- You are very underweight.
If you are a man, high FSH levels may mean:
- Your testicles have been damaged due to chemotherapy, radiation, infection, or alcohol abuse.
- You have Klinefelter syndrome, a genetic disorder affects sexual development in males. It often causes infertility.
If you are a man, low FSH levels may mean you have a disorder of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
In children, high FSH levels, along with high levels of luteinizing hormone, may mean puberty is about to start or has already started. If this is happening before age 9 in a girl or before age 10 in a boy , it may be a sign of:
Relationship Between Menopause And Thyroid Conditions
Some women take hormone replacement therapy to help reduce the symptoms associated with perimenopause.
Most women do not have any issue with their thyroid after starting HRT. However, some women who are already taking medication for an underactive thyroid may find that they need to adjust the dose of their thyroid medication.
It is important to have thyroid hormone levels rechecked from time to time, especially if a woman is experiencing any of the symptoms associated with an underactive thyroid or menopause.
You May Like: Is Maca Good For Menopausal Symptoms
Will I Start Menopause If I Have A Hysterectomy
During a hysterectomy, your uterus is removed. You wont have a period after this procedure. However, if you kept your ovaries removal of your ovaries is called an oophorectomy you may not have symptoms of menopause right away. If your ovaries are also removed, you will have symptoms of menopause immediately.
High Hormone Levels Symptoms
There are hundreds of hormones and hormone-like substances controlling every bodily function in the human body.1 As such, when the finely orchestrated hormonal patterns are out of tune, an imbalance can occur, bringing with it a manifestation of symptoms that can easily ruin one’s daily life.
Find out symptoms of high hormone levels in women below so that you can confidently put the next foot forward in seeking treatment for optimal relief.
Read Also: Why Does Menopause Cause Hot Flashes
Is Having A Hard Time Concentrating And Being Forgetful A Normal Part Of Menopause
Unfortunately, concentration and minor memory problems can be a normal part of menopause. Though this doesnt happen to everyone, it can happen. Doctors arent sure why this happens. If youre having memory problems during menopause, call your healthcare provider. There are several activities that have been shown to stimulate the brain and help rejuvenate your memory. These activities can include:
- Doing crossword puzzles and other mentally stimulating activities like reading and doing math problems.
- Cutting back on passive activities like watching TV.
- Getting plenty of exercise.
Keep in mind that depression and anxiety can also impact your memory. These conditions can be linked to menopause.
What Are The Hormonal Changes During Menopause
The traditional changes we think of as “menopause” happen when the ovaries no longer produce high levels of hormones. The ovaries are the reproductive glands that store eggs and release them into the fallopian tubes. They also produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone as well as testosterone. Together, estrogen and progesterone control menstruation. Estrogen also influences how the body uses calcium and maintains cholesterol levels in the blood.
As menopause nears, the ovaries no longer release eggs into the fallopian tubes, and youll have your last menstrual cycle.
Also Check: Can You Get Menopause At 20
What Are The Long
There are several conditions that you could be at a higher risk of after menopause. Your risk for any condition depends on many things like your family history, your health before menopause and lifestyle factors . Two conditions that affect your health after menopause are osteoporosis and coronary artery disease.
Osteoporosis, a “brittle-bone” disease, occurs when the inside of bones become less dense, making them more fragile and likely to fracture. Estrogen plays an important role in preserving bone mass. Estrogen signals cells in the bones to stop breaking down.
Women lose an average of 25% of their bone mass from the time of menopause to age 60. This is largely because of the loss of estrogen. Over time, this loss of bone can lead to bone fractures. Your healthcare provider may want to test the strength of your bones over time. Bone mineral density testing, also called bone densitometry, is a quick way to see how much calcium you have in certain parts of your bones. The test is used to detectosteoporosis and osteopenia. Osteopenia is a disease where bone density is decreased and this can be a precursor to later osteoporosis.
If you have osteoporosis or osteopenia, your treatment options could include estrogen therapy.
Coronary artery disease
- The loss of estrogen .
- Increased blood pressure.
- A decrease in physical activity.
- Bad habits from your past catching up with you .
Can Blood Tests Help To Manage Menopause And Hrt
There is increasing interest in whether blood testing can predict the onset of menopause, and whether it is useful in the management of hormone replacement therapy . We ask the experts if blood tests to assess hormones are worth considering.
Reviewed byDr Sarah Jarvis MBE
29-Sep-20·7 mins read
In the UK, the average age a woman will reach menopause is 51, though anywhere between 45 and 55 is still considered to be within the normal range. For some women, menopausal night sweats, painful joints, depression, and vaginal and bladder issues can be hugely debilitating. Hormone replacement therapy is one option to help manage these symptoms and alternatives to HRT are also available.
Recommended Reading: Can Menopause Cause Fever And Chills
Sex Hormone Levels And Renal Function Indices In Pre
The 3285 women included in the study were divided into pre-menopause , peri-menopause , and post-menopause groups. The clinical characteristics of the groups are summarized in Table 1. With the change in menopausal status from pre-menopause to peri- and post-menopause, median serum E2 level decreased sharply from 66.75 to 19.12 to 5.58 pg/ml, while median serum FSH level increased from 8.65 to 56.49 to 71.50 mIU/ml. Age, which is an irreversible risk factor for renal dysfunction , increased significantly across the three groups from 43.06 to 51.36 to 60.94 years . The prevalence of decreased eGFR increased from pre-menopause to peri- and post-menopause , with a corresponding increase in prevalence of CKD . Additionally, in post-menopausal women, mean serum creatinine increased from 57.47 to 64.55 mol/l and mean eGFR level decreased from 108.27 to 88.73 ml/min/1.73 m2 .
Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the three groups according to menopausal status.
Natural Causes Of High Estrogen Levels
Estrogen levels shift on a daily basis within the menstrual cycle. Innately, estrogen should be highest during the follicular phase for proper development of uterine lining. Progesterone then takes over as the dominant hormone in the luteal phase after a spike in estrogen triggering ovulation.
If a woman doesn’t conceive, the uterine lining sheds, and the entire cycle repeats itself. If conception occurs, estrogen levels will continually increase to cause changes in the mother to support her entire pregnancy.
During Perimenopause and After Menopause
Entering the menopausal transition is usually announced with irregular and anovulatory periods, caused by the ovaries slowing down reproductive functions.
The absence of ovulation will lead to a drop in progesterone production, which can lead to high estrogen levels as it goes unopposed. A woman suffering from high estrogen levels during menopause will usually have an estrogen reading of 200+ pg/ml.
If left unmanaged, the imbalance may lead to a more permanent state of estrogen dominance, which can cause complications such as breast and uterine cancer.
Breast Cancer And Menopause
Estrogen therapy is known to benefit postmenopausal women in a multitude of ways, mostly through the relief of vasomotor symptoms associated with postmenopause. Estrogen is also beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Much controversy exists about the use of estrogen and breast cancer. Some studies show an increased risk of breast cancer with postmenopausal estrogen use; others show a decrease. A possible link to cancer is also suggested by the finding that breast cancer risk is increased in women with an earlier age at menarche and a later age at menopause. However, a reduction in risk is observed with early age at pregnancy and the interruption of menstrual hormonal changes. The role of estrogen in the development of breast cancer continues to be studied.
In the Womens Health Initiative , the incidence of breast cancer increased in the estrogen-plus-progestin versus placebo arm of the study ; however, the incidence of breast cancer decreased in the estrogen-only versus placebo arm of the study .
Additional follow-up in patients from the WHI suggested similar results: Breast cancer incidence and mortality were increased in the estrogen-plus-progestin group as compared with the placebo group. The role of combined estrogen-plus-progesterone therapy continues to be puzzling in the development of breast cancer.;
Covariates That Impact Reproductive Hormones In The Mt
Several covariates are considered in studies on reproductive hormones and MT, including age, body size, smoking status, race and ethnicity. Many of these characteristics are associated with both reproductive hormones and bleeding patterns/menopause. For example, increased age is associated with hormonal changes that reflect reproductive senescence . Increased age is also associated with increased likelihood of entering MT and ultimately FMP. As such, age is a potential confounder of any association between reproductive hormones and MT.
In addition to age, increase in body mass index is associated with lower AMH, estradiol and FSH levels in late reproductive age . Smoking is associated with earlier FMP as well as lower estradiol and higher FSH . Through SWAN and Penn, hormonal levels in MT appear to vary by race and ethnicity. Chinese and Japanese women had lower estradiol compared with Caucasians, while African-American and Hispanic women had comparable estradiol levels as Caucasians. African-American women had higher FSH concentrations than Caucasians . In Penn data, African-American women had lower estradiol levels than Caucasians, but the effect was mediated in part by BMI . In sum, these observations suggest that confounding and/or potential interactions with these covariates should be explored statistically in studies on reproductive hormones and late reproductive aging.
You May Like: What Causes Abdominal Bloating In Menopause
Analysis Of Hormonal Data In Women Of Late Reproductive Age
One theme among studies examining reproductive hormones through late ovarian aging is the challenge of analyzing these data. First, there is the need to account for multiple, correlated measures in each subject. Studies that reduce these data and treat each observation independently may generated erroneous data . Second, changes in hormones through the MT are non-linear. That is, the rate at which hormones such as FSH increases over time is not constant in an individual woman or between two women. Therefore, multiple statistical modeling efforts have been undertaken to produce estimates of change over time .
Are There Any Risks Related To Hormone Therapy
Like most prescribed medications, there are risks for hormone therapy. Some known health risks include:
- Endometrial cancer .
- Gallstones and gallbladder issues.
Going on hormone therapy is an individualized decision. Discuss all past medical conditions and your family history with your healthcare provider to understand the risks versus benefits of hormone therapy for you.
Also Check: What Are The Signs Of Menopause Symptoms